Healthy life with blood pressure under control
PART.01 Prevent hypertension on a daily basis
Limit sodium intake
An excessive intake of salt increases the risk of hypertension. Long-term salt restriction can slow down the rise of blood pressure with age. The average salt intake of Chinese residents exceeds 9g per day, which is higher than the suggested amount by the World Health Organization -- no more than 5g a day for one person. Also, people are advised to replace common salt with low-sodium salt.
Being overweight can lead to elevated blood pressure and an increased risk of hypertension. Abdominal obesity, in particular, may have a stronger correlation with high blood pressure. It is recommended for individuals who are overweight and obese to lose weight, with a target waist circumference of less than 90cm for males and less than 80cm for females.
Take Moderate Exercise
Exercise can lower sympathetic nervous system activity, relieve stress, and reduce weight and the risk of developing high blood pressure. It is recommended to engage in at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise per week (such as brisk walking, jogging, swimming, or cycling), along with appropriate muscle-strengthening and flexibility exercises based on individual conditions.
Smoking increases the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. It is recommended to quit smoking both traditional and electronic cigarettes.
Too much alcohol consumption leads to high blood pressure. Those who suffer from hypertension should abstain from alcohol. For hypertensive patients who currently consume alcohol, it is advisable to quit.
Long-term mental tension, anxiety, and depression tend to trigger hypertension. It is important to maintain a positive and optimistic mindset and to avoid negative emotions. If necessary, proactive psychological intervention should be sought.
PART.02 Pay attention to blood pressure if it exceeds 130/80mmHg
(1) Without using any anti-hypertensive medication, if someone’s blood pressure exceeds 140/90mmHg on three separate occasions, he/she can be diagnosed with hypertension and start receiving lifestyle interventions and medication.
(2) More attention is needed when a person’s blood pressure exceeds 130/80mmHg, as it may lead to damage in the heart, brain, kidneys, and other organs. Early lifestyle interventions should be implemented, and for patients already experiencing target organ damage and cardiovascular complications, anti-hypertensive medication treatment should be started as soon as possible.
PART.03 Control Blood Pressure and Protect the Heart, Brain, and Kidneys
(1) The greatest hazard of hypertension lies in its damage to important organs such as the heart, brain, and kidneys, and it can even be life-threatening. Therefore, it is vital to control blood pressure. Treatment strategies include adopting a healthy lifestyle and taking medication.
(2) All patients should adhere to a healthy lifestyle. Lifestyle changes can effectively lower blood pressure and reduce the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.
(3) Hypertensive patients who are unable to reach the blood pressure target through lifestyle interventions alone should actively receive anti-hypertensive medication treatment.
PART.04 Steady Blood Pressure Control for Long-term target
(1) Hypertensive patients should insist on long-term medication and are encouraged to choose extended-release anti-hypertensive drugs that only need to be taken once a day-. For patients requiring a comprehensive therapy, it is recommended to prioritize the use of single-pill combinations.
(2) Blood pressure control targets: For general hypertensive patients, blood pressure should be reduced to below 140/90mmHg. For patients with diabetes, coronary heart disease, heart failure, or chronic kidney disease with proteinuria, blood pressure should be kept below 130/80mmHg. For patients aged 65-79 years, blood pressure should be reduced to below 140/90mmHg, and if it’s bearable, further reduction to below 130/80mmHg is recommended. For those aged 80 and above, blood pressure below 140/90mmHg can be an acceptable target.