Vaccination is the most effective means to prevent and control infectious diseases. The invention of vaccines and vaccination are among mankind's greatest public health achievements. The spread of vaccination has prevented disability and death in countless children and governments around the world have made vaccination a top priority in their public health services. China has effectively controlled infectious diseases through its vaccination-based national immunization program. By administering oral polio pills, China eradicated the transmission of indigenous poliovirus in 1995, saving hundreds of thousands of children from physical disability. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus in children under 5 years dropped from 9.7% in 1992 to 0.3% in 2014, after the popularization of neonatal hepatitis B vaccination. The annual incidence of measles plummeted from over 9 million in the mid-1990s to below 6,000 in 2017. Since 2006, no cases of diphtheria have been reported in China.