How to save yourself and others in traffic accidents
Main causes of traffic accidents
In hot weather, drivers can easily become fatigued and impatient, and cars are prone to experience mechanical failures. Summer is also the time when extreme weather events such as floods and mudslides occur, which may also cause traffic accidents.
Human factors are the main cause of traffic accidents, where drivers play the main part. Illegal behaviors of drivers that cause most of the traffic accidents include drunk driving, driving without a license, driving on the wrong side of the road, and so on.
Besides, fatigue driving and distracted driving(making and receiving phone calls, sending and receiving messages, and playing with electronic devices on the vehicle) are also dangerous driving behaviors.
How to avoid risks during sudden mechanical failures
The number of traffic accidents caused by mechanical failures such as tire blowouts and brake failure is relatively low. Therefore, there is a general lack of experience in how to respond to sudden mechanical failures. Delay in response may cause major traffic accidents.
To avoid tire blowouts, a tire should be replaced when it wears to a certain degree or it has reached the end of its design life.
When a tire bursts, the vehicle is likely to veer to one side. The driver should keep calm and hold the steering wheel tightly; tap the brake to slow down and prevent the vehicle from sideslipping or turning over.
When the brake of a vehicle fails on a highway, the driver can avoid an accident by driving to the emergency escape lanes on long downhill stretches and downshifting; if the failure occurs on a mountain road, the vehicle can be slowed down by the friction through running gently in contact with the mountain to avoid falling off a cliff.
In addition, we should keep a safe distance when driving to avoid rear-end collisions.
How to survive a road accident
Traffic accidents can easily cause secondary accidents such as fires, explosions and collisions. Moreover, the narrow vehicle space affects the ability of the injured to escape and the rescue work. Most injuries caused by traffic accidents occur in the head and lower limbs, followed by those in the upper limbs and body surface. The top four causes of death from traffic accidents are craniocerebral injury, chest injury, traumatic hemorrhagic shock and asphyxia.
The first 10 minutes after the traffic accidents is a crucial period for emergency aid. With the same degree of injury, the success rate is above 80 percent if effective treatment is carried out within the first 30 minutes; the success rate drops to only 10 percent if the treatment is carried out 90 minutes after the accident. Therefore, drivers and passengers or people at the site should carry out self-rescue and mutual rescue as soon as possible.
A particularly important measure for rescue is the control of massive bleeding because massive bleeding will endanger the lives of the wounded. The bleeding can be controlled by directly pressing on the wound and by binding up the wound by a tourniquet. Bleeding on the scalp can be stopped by directly pressing with gauze or a towel. If there is blood and cerebrospinal fluid coming out of the nose and ears, let the injured lie down. If the throat and nose bleed heavily and may block the respiratory tract, the head should be tilted to one side.
If you do not know how to administer rescue, keep the injured person warm and stop any bleeding, do not move the injured and wait for the ambulance.
Safe driving is the key
Never drive after drinking. Slow down when driving through a crossroads.The driver and the front seat passenger, as well as the rear seat passengers should all wear seat belts. Children should not sit in the front passenger seat. Wear a safety helmet when riding a motorcycle.
Drivers should equip their vehicles with rescue kits, including items which can be used to call for help or the police, and carry out emergent rescue. In particular, the rescue kits should withstand collision and be easily accessible so that they can be quickly and effectively retrieved in case of accident.