World Diabetes Day calls for education to protect tomorrow | Updated: 2022-11-18
November 14 of 2022 marks the 16th World Diabetes Day, with the theme of "Education to Protect Tomorrow".
Data from the World Health Organization show that about 422 million people suffer from diabetes around the world and 1.5 million deaths are directly related to diabetes every year. In recent years, the prevalence of diabetes among adults in China has continued to rise, affecting 11.9 percent of the total population. The average age of patients is getting younger and the prevalence of diabetes among people in rural areas is growing rapidly.
Patients with diabetes are often accompanied by abnormal fat and protein metabolism. Long-term hyperglycemia can cause damage to many organs, especially the eyes, heart, blood vessels, kidneys, and nerves, and can lead to organ dysfunction or failure resulting in disability or death. Common complications of diabetes include stroke, myocardial infarction, retinopathy, diabetes nephropathy and diabetic foot. 
Diabetes can be prevented and controlled
Early detection and comprehensive management of diabetes can prevent and control the complications of diabetes and reduce the rate of disability and premature death from diabetes.
1.Maintain a healthy lifestyle with reasonable diet and regular exercise.
Nutrition, exercise, medicine, health education and blood glucose monitoring are the five comprehensive treatment measures for diabetes.
2. The fasting blood glucose of healthy people should be tested once a year after the age of 40. It is recommended that the fasting blood glucose or 2-hour post-meal blood glucose should be tested once every six months for pre-diabetic people.
3. Diabetes patients can reduce the risk of complications by taking measures to reduce blood sugar and blood pressure, and to adjust blood lipids and control their weight. They can also correct bad living habits such as quitting smoking and drinking, cutting oil and salt consumption, and increasing their physical activity.
4. Self-management of diabetes patients is an effective way to control the symptoms, and self-monitoring of blood glucose should be carried out under the guidance of professional doctors and/or nurses.
Keep a healthy lifestyle
1. Weight control
The goal of weight loss for overweight and obese patients is to lose 5 to 10 percent of their weight in three to six months. The underweight patients should achieve and maintain their ideal weight through a reasonable nutrition plan.
2. Balanced diet
Dietary nutrition should be balanced to meet the needs of patients for nutrients. They are advised to reduce the intake of refined carbohydrates (such as white rice, pasta and biscuits) and sugary drinks, and replace 1/3 of refined white rice, flour and other staple foods with whole grains or beans. It is recommended to choose foods with low blood sugar load.
3. Moderate exercise
Adults with type 2 diabetes should take moderate-intensity (50 to 70 percent of the maximum heart rate, exercise requires a little effort, and the heart rate and breathing are faster but not too fast) aerobic exercise (such as fast walking, cycling, shadowboxing) for at least 150 minutes a week (for example, exercise for five days a week, 30 minutes each time); increase their daily physical activity and reduce sitting time. It is recommended to conduct resistance exercise two or three times a week (interval between two exercises ≥ 48 h). Exercise therapy should not be taken when the patient is experiencing acute or serious chronic complications.
4. Quitting drinking and smoking
Quit smoking and avoid secondhand smoke. Drinking alcohol is not recommended for diabetes patients. 
5. Salt intake limit
According to the Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents (2022), children and adults aged 11 and above should not consume more than 5g of salt per day.
6. Maintaining a good mood
Keep a regular rhythm of work and rest, reduce mental stress and maintain a pleasant mood.
Typical symptoms 
Diabetes is a metabolic disease characterized by elevated blood sugar, which is caused by the deficiency of insulin secretion and/or action. Patients with typical symptoms of diabetes tend to drink more water, eat more, urinate more, and lose weight. People who have these typical symptoms and meet any of the following conditions can be diagnosed as diabetic:
01 Blood glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dl) at any time of the day
02 Fasting blood glucose level ≥ 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dl)
03 Two-hour oral glucose tolerance test result ≥ 11.1 mmol/L
Who should pay attention to diabetes?
With one of the following factors, a person is at high-risk groups for diabetes
1. Age ≥ 40
2. Overweight and obesity
3. Hypertension
4. Abnormal blood lipid
5. Sedentary lifestyle
6. Family history of diabetes
7. History of pregnancy diabetes
8. Birth history of macrosomia (birth weight ≥ 4Kg)
6.1mmol/L ≤ fasting blood glucose (FBG)<7.0mmol/L, or 7.8mmol/L ≤ 2-hour glucose load (2hPG)<11.1mmol/L, which means impaired glucose regulation, also known as prediabetes, people with this condition belongs to the extremely high-risk group for diabetes.