Cardiovascular diseases | Updated: 2022-04-08
Cardiovascular diseases are those related to heart and blood vessels. They include:
Coronary heart disease — disease of blood vessels that supply blood to heart muscles.
Cerebrovascular disease — disease of blood vessels that supply blood to the brain.
Peripheral terminal arterial vascular disease — disease of blood vessels that supply blood to arms and legs.
Rheumatic heart disease — damage to acute articular rheumatism to heart muscles and cardiac valves caused by streptococcus.
Congenital heart disease — congenitally structural deformity of the heart. 
Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism — blood clots in the leg veins can move to the heart and the lungs.
Factors causing cardiovascular diseases
The key risk factors causing heart disease and stroke are unhealthy diet, lack of exercise and use of tobacco and alcohol. Modifiable behavioral factors are present in approximately 80 percent of coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease.
Unhealthy diet and lack of exercise can result in increases in blood pressure, blood glucose and blood fat as well as being overweight and obesity.
Other factors that may cause cardiovascular diseases include poverty, pressure and genetic factors.
Common symptoms of cardiovascular diseases
The symptoms of heart disease include:
Pain or discomfort in the middle of the chest;
Pain or discomfort in arms, the left shoulder, the elbows, the maxillofacial area and the back.
The patient may also experience breathing difficulties or shortness of breath; nausea or vomiting; dizziness or lack of strength; and weakness with cold sweats and a pale complexion. Women are more prone to shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting and aches in the back and maxillofacial muscles.
The most common symptom of a stroke is a sudden feeling of weakness in the face, arm or leg of one side of the body. Other symptoms include numbness in face, arm and leg of one side of the body; confusion in mind; difficulties in speaking and understanding; difficulties in recognizing objects in one eye or in both eyes; difficulty in walking, dizziness and loss of balance or coordination; severe headache without cause; and weakness or loss of consciousness.

How to relieve the burden of cardiovascular diseases
A healthy diet, regular exercise and avoiding smoking can prevent heart disease and stroke. 
Comprehensive integrated action is a measure to prevent and control cardiovascular diseases. 
Intervention measures for reducing the population suffering from cardiovascular diseases include: tobacco control policy, taxes on food with high fat, sugar and salt to reduce their intake, paving paths for walking and cycling to help increase exercise, and providing healthy food for school children.  
Comprehensive measures mainly focus on the common risk factors that cause a series of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and cancers: unhealthy diet, lack of exercise and use of tobacco.
What is rheumatic heart disease 
Rheumatic heart disease results from damage to heart valves and myocardium caused by inflammation and scarring from rheumatic fever. Rheumatic fever is caused by streptococcal infection and the initial symptom of a child patient is usually a sore throat or tonsillitis. 
Symptoms of rheumatic heart disease
The symptoms of rheumatic heart disease include shortness of breath, susceptibility to fatigue, arrhythmia, chest pain and dizziness.
The symptoms of rheumatic fever include fever, pain and swelling in joints, nausea, gastro spasm and vomiting.
Treatment on rheumatic heart disease
Early treatment of a sore throat caused by streptococcus can stop the development of rheumatic fever. Using penicillin for long-term treatment can prevent recurrent attacks of rheumatic fever that lead to rheumatic heart disease and stop the progression of the disease in patients whose heart valves have been harmed by the disease.