What you need to know about cervical cancer (Ⅱ)
6.What are the prevention and control strategies for cervical cancer?
The prevention and control strategies for cervical cancer include prevention, screening and treatment, which are often called a form of three-level prevention.
Primary prevention refers to etiology and the adoption of effective measures to reduce the carcinogenic effect on the body. Secondary prevention refers to the use of screening and early diagnosis to find precancerous lesions, so as to reduce the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer. Tertiary prevention refers to treatment according to the clinical stage of cervical invasive cancer, improving patients' quality of life, prolonging life and reducing pain.
7.What is the primary prevention of cervical cancer?
Primary prevention refers to etiological prevention , eliminating the high-risk factors leading to cervical cancer and preventing HPV infection .
It mainly includes:
(1)Vaccination against HPV, especially for adolescent females who have not had a sexual life, which can effectively prevent the infection by the type of virus covered by the vaccines;
(2)Establishing safe sexual behaviors, such as delaying first sexual activity, using condoms correctly and reducing the number of sexual partners;
(3) Developing good living habits, such as keeping a balanced diet, taking regular physical exercise, and quitting smoking as soon as possible.
8.How does one get HPV vaccination in China?
At present, there are four types of HPV vaccines approved in China. One is domestic(bivalent HPV vaccine), and the other three are all imported (9-valent HPV vaccine, quadrivalent HPV vaccine and bivalent HPV vaccine). Women can voluntarily get vaccinated at their own expense.
The HPV vaccine is managed by CDCs. See the table for detailed information:
|Type||2vHPV (imported)||4vHPV (imported)||9vHPV (imported)||2vHPV (domestic)|
|HPV types||HPV types (16 and 18)||HPV types (6,11,16 and 18)||HPV types (6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58)||HPV types (16 and 18)|
|Diseases prevented||70 percent of cervical cancer||70 percent of cervical cancer; 90 percent of condyloma acuminatum||90 percent of cervical cancer; 90 percent of condyloma acuminatum||70 percent of cervical cancer|
|Age||Women aged 9-45||Women aged 9-45||Women aged 16-26||Women aged 9-45|
|Schedule||three doses: second and third doses at second and sixth months after first dose||three doses: second and third doses at third and sixth months after first dose||three doses: second and third doses at third and sixth months after first dose||three doses: second and third doses at third and sixth months after first dose
two doses for children aged 9-14: second sixth months after first dose
9.Do you still need regular cervical cancer screening after HPV vaccination?
At present, none of the HPV vaccines can cover all carcinogenic subtypes. Between 10 and 30 percent of cervical cancer cannot be prevented by HPV vaccines, so it is still possible to develop cervical cancer after HPV vaccination. For women aged 25-64 who have had sex, even if they have been vaccinated against HPV, they still need to be regularly screened for cervical cancer.
10.What is secondary prevention of cervical cancer?
Secondary prevention refers to cervical cancer screening for women aged 25 to 64, especially asymptomatic women or those who are at risk of catching cervical cancer. It seeks to make further diagnosis and treatment for those with suspicious or abnormal screening results to prevent the development of the disease into cervical tumor. During screening, if cervical precancerous lesions are found, they can be cured through treatment and will not be life-threatening.